Print Resources (under construction)

References for student instrument projects and other labs (mostly from TPT)

Instruments based on air column resonance

  1. Maria Eva Amorim, Teresa Delmira Sousa, P. Simeão Carvalho, and Adriano Sampaio e Sousa, “A simple experiment to explore standing waves in a flexible corrugated sound tube,” Phys. Teach. 49, 360–362 (Sept. 2011).
  2. Stephen Luzader, “PC and PVC acoustics demonstrations,” Phys. Teach. 28, 469–463 (Oct. 1999).
  3. Bob Brazzle, “Inexpensive instruments for a sound unit,” Phys. Teach. 49, 228–230 (April 2011).
  4. Michael E. Bacon, “Speed of sound versus temperature using PVC pipes open at both ends,” Phys. Teach. 50, 351–353 (Sept. 2012).
  5. M. E. Bacon and Steven Torok, “An experimental investigation of the end effects for Blue Man Group® pipes,” Phys. Teach. 49, 152–154 (March 2011).
  6. Michael C. LoPresto, “Fourier analysis of musical intervals,” Phys. Teach. 46, 486–489 (Jan. 1994).
  7. Michael C. LoPresto, “Measuring end correction for a quarterwave tube,” Phys. Teach. 43, 380 (Sept. 2005).
  8. Don Easton, “Speed of sound in air,” letter to the editor, Phys. Teach. 43, 567 (Dec. 2005).
  9. Matthew Krumm and Sam Matteson, “Frequency dependence of end corrections for a pipe of circular cross section,” 2009 Spring Meeting of the Texas Section of the APS, AAPT, and SPS meeting, April 2-4 (2009). Also private communication Sam Matteson, September 2009.
  10. Michael Ruiz, “Boomwhackers and End-Pipe Corrections,” Phys. Teach. 52, 73 (2014);

Instruments based on Helmholtz resonance



  1. D.L.R. Oliver, “Hollow Tube Chimes,” Phys. Teach. 36, 209 (April 1998).
  2. Robert W. Harris, “Using wind chimes to introduce the physics course,” Phys. Teach. 38, 218 (April 2000); doi: 10.1119/1.880509

String instruments

  1. Fred W. Inman, “A standing wave experiment with a guitar,” Phys. Teach. 44, 465 (October 2006) doi: 10.1119/1.2353595
  2. Donald E. Hall, “Sacrificing a guitar in the name of science,” Phys. Teach. (p. 673 Dec. 1989)
  3. Randall Tagg, John Carlson, Masoud Asadi-Zeydabadi, Brad Busley, Katie Law-Balding et al., “Guitars, Keyboards, Strobes, and Motors – From Vibrational Motion to Active Research”  Phys. Teach. 51, 35 (Jan. 2013); doi: 10.1119/1.4772036


  1. A moodle course (from where about what?) that includes several sound projects:


Speed of Sound Versus Temperature Using PVC Pipes Open at Both Ends
The Physics Teacher 50, 351 (2012);
Inexpensive Instruments for a Sound Unit
The Physics Teacher 49, 228 (2011);
Visualization of Harmonic Series in Resonance Tubes Using a Smartphone
The Physics Teacher 54, 545 (2016);
Boomwhackers and End-Pipe Corrections
The Physics Teacher 52, 73 (2014);
Experimenting with a “Pipe” Whistle
The Physics Teacher 50, 229 (2012);
A Simple Experiment to Explore Standing Waves in a Flexible Corrugated Sound Tube
The Physics Teacher 49, 360 (2011);


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Understanding Sound by abbottds is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License, except where otherwise noted.

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